So my university has shutdown the campus for the remainder of the semester due to Coronavirus concerns and asked all students to attend classes remotely (mainly using Zoom for live-streaming lectures). I went looking for an open source cross platform video conferencing solution with a fast onboarding process and found Jitsi to fit the bill.
It’s free, it’s FOSS, and there are no accounts required to create a chat session on their website. You just need to enter a name for your room, and they give you a link to share for people to join.
The only officially supported web browser is Google Chrome which kinda sucks. But it seems to work okay in Firefox except I couldn’t get it to detect any of my microphones (your usage may vary). Instead, I’m using it in Falkon and it works flawlessly.
Unfortunately, it also doesn’t appear that video chats are end-to-end encrypted which means whoever runs the server can see the raw footage (but you can self-host).
Overall it’s good enough and it looks like the public service is hosted by 8×8, which is a public VoIP company, so I’m not overly concerned about eavesdropping (due to the lack of end-to-end encryption). I’ll keep an eye out for better options but for now I’m sticking with Jitsi.
Here is a summary of some of the default apps:
Buho – the default note taking app. Notes can be tagged by color, keyword, and organized into “books”. It can also save URLs.
Discover – the same KDE software center available on the desktop.
Index – the file manager which draws inspiration from Dolphin.
KDE Connect – sync your Plasma Mobile phone with your Plasma Desktop.
Koko – the photo gallery and viewer. Has some issues with thumbnails.
Konsole – the same KDE terminal emulator available on the desktop.
Okular – the PDF reader for Plasma Mobile. It’s a different application from Okular for Plasma Desktop.
Phone Book – stores your contacts phone numbers, emails, etc.
Settings – settings app for Plasma Mobile which is currently missing some categories (ex: battery).
Wave – the default music player which don’t have any sound right now.
Phone – the dialer app for calling numbers and contacts.
Angelfish – the default web browser which has support for tabs, history, bookmarks, etc.
Calindori – the default calendar app but I couldn’t figure out how to add events.
Elisa (KDE music player) is now on the Windows Store! https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/p/elisa/9pb5md7zh8tl
I was recently wondering which of the popular web search engines provided the best results and decided to try to design an objective benchmark for evaluating them. My hypothesis was that Google would score the best followed by StartPage (Google aggregator) and then Bing and it’s aggregators.
Usually when evaluating search engine performance there are two methods I’ve seen used:
Have humans search for things and rate the results
Create a dataset of mappings between queries and “ideal” result URLs
The problem with having humans rate search results is that it is expensive and hard to replicate results. Creating a dataset of “correct” webpages to return for each query solves the repeatability of the experiment problem but is also expensive upfront and depends on the human creating the dataset’s subjective biases.
Instead of using either of those methods I decided to evaluate the search engines on the specific task of answering factual questions from humans asked in natural language. Each engine is scored by how many of its top 10 results contain the correct answer.
Although this approach is not very effective at evaluating the quality of a single query, I believe in aggregate over thousands of queries it should provide a reasonable estimation of how well each engine can answer the users questions.
To source the factoid questions, I use the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) which is a popular natural language dataset containing 100k factual questions and answers from Wikipedia collected by Mechanical Turk workers.
Here are some sample questions from the dataset:
Q: How did the black death make it to the Mediterranean and Europe?
A: merchant ships
Q: What is the largest city of Poland?
Q: In 1755 what fort did British capture?
A: Fort Beauséjour
Some of the questions in the dataset are also rather ambiguous such as the one below:
Q: What order did British make of French?
A: expulsion of the Acadian
This is because the dataset is designed to train question answering models that have access to the context that contains the answer. In the case of SQaUD each Q/A pair comes with the paragraph from Wikipedia that contains the answer.
However, I don’t believe this is a huge problem since most likely all search engines will perform poorly on those types of questions and no individual one will be put at a disadvantage.Collecting data
To get the results from each search engine, I wrote a Python script that connects to Firefox via Selenium and performs searches just like regular users via the browser.
The first 10 results are extracted using CSS rules specific to each search engine and then those links are downloaded using the requests library. To check if a particular result is a “match” or not we simply perform an exact match search of the page source code for the correct answer (both normalized to lowercase).
Again this is not a perfect way of determining whether any single page really answers a query, but in aggregate it should provide a good estimate.
Some search engines are harder to scrape due to rate limiting. The most aggressive rate limiters were: Qwant, Yandex, and Gigablast. They often blocked me after just two queries (on a new IP) and thus there are fewer results available for those engines. Also, Cliqz, Lycos, Yahoo!, and YaCy were all added mid experiment, so they have fewer results too.
I scraped results for about 2 weeks and collected about 3k queries for most engines. Below is a graph of the number of queries that were scraped from each search engine.Crunching the numbers
Now that the data is collected there are lots of ways to analyze it. For each query we have the number of matching documents, and for the latter half of queries also the list of result links saved.
The first thing I decided to do was see which search engine had the highest average number of matching documents.
Much to my surprise Google actually came in second to Ecosia. I was rather shocked with this since Ecosia’s gimmick is that they plant trees with the money from ads, not having Google beating search results.
Also surprising is the number of Bing aggregators (Ecosia, DuckDuckGo, Yahoo!) that all came in ahead of Bing itself. One reason may be that those engines each apply their own ranking on top of the results returned by Bing and some claim to also search other sources.
Below is a chart with the exact scores of each search engine.Search EngineScoreCountEcosia2.820871778555523143Google2.653978159126363205DuckDuckGo2.583777012214223193StartPage2.557232704402523180Yahoo!2.512204424103742622Bing2.48093753200Qwant2.32365747460087689Yandex1.926519337016571810Gigablast1.51381215469613905Cliqz1.397241379310342900Lycos1.209626787582842867YaCy0.8980503655564582462
To further understand why the Bing aggregators performed so well I wanted to check how much of their own ranking was being used. I computed the average Levenshtein distance between each two search engines, which is the minimum number of single result edits (insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one results page into the other.Edit distance matrix of different search results
Of the three, Ecosia was the most different from pure Bing with an average edit distance of 8. DuckDuckGo was the second most different with edit distance of 7, followed by Yahoo! with a distance of 5.
Interestingly the edit distances of Ecosia, DuckDuckGo, and Yahoo! seem to correlate well with their overall rankings where Ecosia came in 1st, DuckDuckGo 3rd, and Yahoo! 5th. This would indicate that whatever modifications these engines have made to the default Bing ranking do indeed improve search result quality.Closing thoughts
This was a pretty fun little experiment to do, and I am happy to see some different results from what I expected. I am making all the collected data and scripts available for anyone who wants to do their own analysis.
This study does not account for features besides search result quality such as instant answers, bangs, privacy, etc. and thus it doesn’t really show which search engine is “best” just which one provides the best results for factoid questions.
I plan to continue using DuckDuckGo as my primary search engine despite it coming in 3rd place. The results of the top 6 search engines are all pretty close, so I would expect the experience across them to be similar.
Help us build the next generation of AppCenter—and get sweet rewards for backing! We’re planning a week-long in-person development sprint. Learn what we’ll be up to, and why. #AppCenterForEveryone https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/appcenter-for-everyone/
A recent article on a big tech news site included this phrase:
"[...] Linux phones like the PinePhone, [...]are full of closed-source firmware from non-open components"
We'd like to clear the record: The #PinePhone has two blobs -- neither runs on the main SoC: One loaded to WiFi/BT module, other enclosed within the cell modem. In the modern world of tech, both blobs are unavoidable.
For an overview from someone with deep knowledge of both the PinePhone and Librem 5: https://tuxphones.com/yet-another-librem-5-and-pinephone-linux-smartphone-comparison/
So, SourceHut is not hosted in anyone's cloud. I own all of the hardware outright and colocate most of it in a local datacenter.
I just built a new server for git.sr.ht, and boy is she a beat. It cost me about $5.5K as a one-time upfront cost, and now I just pay for power, bandwidth, and space, which runs about $650/mo for *all* of my servers (10+).
Ran back of the napkin numbers with AWS's price estimator for a server of equivalent specs, and without even considering bandwidth usage it'd cost me almost TEN GRAND PER MONTH to host JUST that server alone on AWS.
AWS is how techbro startups pile up and BURN their investor money.
The first Community Update of 2020 is here!
The plurality of Linux distros is often spotlighted as some kind of issue. I agree that "fragmentation" is a marketing headache, but a technical one?
I don't think so.
Using Linux is (to me) inherently about choice. My choice, your choice, other people's choice. People choice to approach things in different ways for different reasons for different results. To experiment. To push boundaries. Reinvent. Rethink.
Linux is, for me, a momentum or a force, not a standardised end product or ideal.
The thing I think is funny about DRM is that media companies spend millions on building it, but at the end of the day it can all be undone by any 12 year old with some screen recording software.
@kyle The prospect of something like sudden account termination scares the hell out of me, but I'm still very invested with Google. I remain only through some combination of fear, procrastination, and denial. A dangerous trifecta!
So I was recently asked why I prefer to use free and open source software over more conventional and popular proprietary software and services.
A few years ago I was an avid Google user. I was deeply embedded in the Google ecosystem and used their products everywhere. I used Gmail for email, Google Calendar and Contacts for PIM, YouTube for entertainment, Google Newsstand for news, Android for mobile, and Chrome as my web browser.
I would upload all of my family photos to Google Photos and all of my personal documents to Google Drive (which were all in Google Docs format). I used Google Domains to register my domain names for websites where I would keep track of my users using Google Analytics and monetize them using Google AdSense.
I used Google Hangouts (one of Google’s previous messaging plays) to communicate with friends and family and Google Wallet (with debit card) to buy things online and in-store.
My home is covered with Google Homes (1 in my office, 1 in my bedroom, 1 in the main living area) which I would use to play music on my Google Play Music subscription and podcasts from Google Podcasts.
I have easily invested thousands of dollars into my Google account to buy movies, TV shows, apps, and Google hardware devices. This was truly the Google life.
Then one day, I received an email from Google that changed everything.“Your account has been suspended”
I nearly had a heart attack, until I saw that the Google account that had been suspended was in fact not my main personal Google account, but a throwaway Gmail account that I created years prior for a project. I hadn’t touched the other account since creation and forgot it existed. Apparently my personal Gmail was listed as the recovery address for the throwaway account and that’s why I received the termination email.
Although I was able to breathe a sigh of relief this time, the email was wake up call. I was forced to critically reevaluate my dependence on a single company for all the tech products and services in my life.
I found myself to be a frog in a heating pot of water and I made the decision that I was going to jump out.Leaving Google
The first Google service I decided to drop was Gmail, the heart of my online identity. I migrated to Fastmail with my own domain in case I needed to move again (hint: glad I did, now I self host my email). Fastmail also provided calendar and contacts solutions so that took care of leaving Google Calendar and Contacts.
Here are some other alternatives that I moved to:
Gmail → Fastmail → Self-hosted (via Cloudron)
Google Contacts → Fastmail → Nextcloud Contacts
Google Calendar → Fastmail → Nextcloud Calendar
Google Search → Bing → DuckDuckGo
Google Maps → Bing Maps → OpenStreetMaps and OsmAnd
Google Analytics → Matomo Analytics
Google Drive → Nextcloud Files
Google Photos → Nextcloud Files/Gallery
Google Docs → Collabora Office (Nextcloud integration) and LibreOffice
Google Play Music → Spotify / Plex → Spotify / Jellyfin
Google Play Movies/TV → Plex → Jellyfin
Google Play Audiobooks/Books → Audible/Kindle
Google Play Store (apps) → F-Droid / Aurora Store
Google Android → Lineage OS → Ubuntu Touch on PinePhone (coming soon?)
Google’s Android Apps → Simple Mobile Tools
Google Chrome → Mozilla Firefox
Google Domains → Hover
Google Hangouts → Matrix and Nextcloud Talk
Google Allo → Signal
Google Podcasts → PocketCasts → AntennaPod
Google Newsstand → RSS
Google Wallet → PayPal and Cash App
Migrating away from Google was not a fast or easy process. It took years to get where I am now and there are still several Google services that I depend on: YouTube and Google Home.
Eventually, my Google Home’s will grow old and become unsupported at which point hopefully the Mycroft devices have matured and become available for purchase. YouTube may never be replaced (although I do hope for projects like PeerTube to succeed) but I find the compromise of using only one or two Google services to be acceptable.
At this point losing my Google account due to a mistake in their machine learning would largely be inconsequential and my focus has shifted to leaving Amazon which I use for most of my shopping and cloud services.
The reason that I moved to mostly FOSS applications is that it seems to be the only software ecosystem where everything works seamlessly together and I don’t have to cede control to any single company. Alternatively I could have simply split my service usage up evenly across Google, Microsoft, Amazon, and Apple but I don’t feel that they would have worked as nicely together.
Overall I’m very happy with the open source ecosystem. I use Ubuntu with KDE on all of my computers and Android (no GApps) on my mobile phone. I’ve ordered the PinePhone “Brave Heart” and hope to one day be able to use it or one of its successors as a daily driver with Ubuntu Touch or Plasma Mobile.
I'm a computer science student at the University of Massachusetts and the founder of the Hoxly Corporation.
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